18F-SMBT-1 PET studies showed that Ab+ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, but most importantly, Ab+ controls (CN) have significantly higher regional 18F-SMBT- 1 binding than Ab-CN, with conservation 18F-SMBT-1 strongly associated with Ab load. These results suggest that increased assocn 18F-SMBT-1 is expressed in the preclinical stages of Ab accumulation. Author: Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.121.263255″ width=”800″ height=”304″/>

Graphic abstract. 18PET studies of F-SMBT-1 showed that Ab+ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, but most importantly, Ab+ in controls (CN) have a significantly higher regional 18F-SMBT-1 binding than Ab- CN, with 18F-SMBT-1 retention is strongly associated with Ab load. These findings suggest that increased 18F-SMBT-1 binding is detected at preclinical stages of Ab accumulation. credit: Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.121.263255

A new highly selective PET agent can detect overexpression of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) in cognitively impaired individuals with high levels of amyloid beta (Ab), one of the earliest signs of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in October. issue of Art Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

radio tracer, 18F-SMBT-1 allows for better understanding of the role of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease, allowing for more accurate staging and earlier prognosis. Brain inflammation that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease involves reactive astrocytes, which are cells that overexpress MAO-B.

Recently developed 18The F-SMBT-1 radiointerface is highly selective for MAO-B and consequently enhances binding to reactive astrocytes. “This increased attachment is indicative of that 18F-SMBT-1 could potentially be used as a surrogate marker for reactive astrogliosis in Alzheimer’s disease,” said Victor Willeman, MD, professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The study aimed to characterize 18Binding of F-SMBT-1 to reactive astrocytes across the Alzheimer’s disease continuum. The study participants included three clinical groups: 57 control participants without cognitive impairment, 12 subjects who met the criteria mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and eight subjects meeting criteria for Alzheimer’s disease.

The participants underwent several types of visualization, including 18F-SMBT-1 PET, Ab PET, tau PET and MRI. Images were normalized and statistical analysis was performed for evaluation 18F-SMBT-1 binding as a function of pathological Ab and tau load. 18F-SMBT-1 was found to correlate strongly with Ab load and much less with tau load.

The three clinical groups were then classified based on their Ab status (either Ab+ or Ab-). Significant differences in 18F-SMBT-1 binding was detected among Ab- participants in the control and MCI groups. In Ab+ subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, 18F-SMBT-1 binding was significantly higher. the main thing 18F-SMBT-1 binding was significantly higher in Ab+ control group compared to the Ab control group.

“It should be noted that areas of the brain where we saw it above 18F-SMBT-1 binding in controls are areas known for early Ab deposition. This suggests that reactive astrocytes are associated with early AT deposition in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease and likely play a role in clinical progression,” Willeman said.

He continued, “Implementation 18F-SMBT-1 will elucidate the role of reactive astrogliosis in neurodegenerative diseases, not just Alzheimer’s disease, and its potential independent and/or synergistic effects on pathology, neurodegeneration, cognition and disease progression. This has the potential to define and clarify the diagnostic, staging and prognostic role of reactive astrogliosis in these conditions.”

A possible new PET tracer for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease

Additional information:
Victor L. Villemagne et al, Evaluation of reactive astrogliosis with 18F-SMBT-1 in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum, Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.121.263255

Citation: New PET imaging agent detects earliest signs of Alzheimer’s disease (2022, October 19) Retrieved October 19, 2022, from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-pet-imaging-agent-earliest-alzheimer. html

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