Stages of MRI processing. For volume (left), vascular plexus volume (CP) (red) and cerebral cortex volume (green) segmented with T1-weighted three-dimensional images using automated three-dimensional software (Inbrain), based on the FreeSurfer 6.0 platform (top row). Volumes of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) (green) are also segmented from three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) images with attenuated fluid inversion-recovery (FLAIR) using the same software (bottom row). The segmented volumes of the mask are binary. To display permeability and sensitivity (right), permeability values, volume transfer constant [Ktrans] and fractional plasma volume) are obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans using the Patlak model, and CP permeability values ​​are obtained using co-recording of segmented CP (red) T1-weighted images on a parametric map using mutual information-based algorithm (upper rows). The color scale bar represents the volume transfer constant (in min21). Measures of sensitivity to CP are generated similarly. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is obtained from multidynamic multithreaded images using QSMnet1 (bottom row). The band of shades of gray shows the sensitivity in parts per million. Author: Radiological Society of North America

According to a new study published in the Journal, an increase in the volume of an important brain structure called the vascular plexus is associated with greater cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Radiology.

The vascular plexus is a network of blood vessels connective tissue and cells located in spaces of the brain called ventricles. The plexus plays an important role in brain health. This is the gateway for immune cells from blood to brain. As the main place for the production of cerebrospinal fluid, it is very important to clean waste and toxic proteins from brain cells. This role is especially important in the case of Alzheimer’s disease. Recent research suggests this disease progression associated with the accumulation of abnormal proteins called amyloid and tau, and subsequent nerve degeneration.

“Researchers believe that Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for purification disorders, not excessive production of abnormal amyloid and tau,” said senior author Wong-Jin Moon, MD, professor of radiology and professor of radiology at Konkuk University. School of Medicine in Seoul, Korea. “Thus, we believe that the abnormal state of the vascular plexus is associated with a violation of cleansing, which leads to the accumulation of waste and toxic protein in the brain, as well as a failure of immune control, which leads to neuroinflammation.”

Little is known about the visualization profile of the vascular plexus in cognitive impairment.

To learn more, Dr. Moon and his colleagues performed brain MRIs on 532 participants at various stages of cognitive impairment. Of the 532 participants, 132 underwent permeability imaging using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

The volume and permeability of the choroid were related to the severity of cognitive impairment on brain MRI. The volume of the vascular plexus was greater in those with Alzheimer’s dementia than in those without. Larger vascular volume was negatively associated with memory. It has also had a negative impact on executive functions, a wide range of mental skills that govern things like self-control and planning.

The volume of the vascular membrane associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Comparison of four representative 3.0-T MRI brains of vascular plexus volume (CP) (red) according to the stage of the disease in the spectrum of cognitive impairment. CP is higher in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than in those with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). All patients were 75-year-old women. Author: Radiological Society of North America

“Our study found that increased vascular volume is independently associated with increased cognitive impairment,” Dr. Moon said. “We found no association between vascular volume and amyloid pathology, but a clear association between vascular volume and cognitive impairment burden. “

The results of the study point to new possibilities for the role of MRI in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.

“I think our conclusions about the choroid may suggest that this is a new potential surrogate for MRI for a disrupted cleansing and neuroinflammation system,” Dr. Moon said.

Other potential clinical applications include assisting researchers in developing new targeted drugs or treatments for cleansing failure and neuroinflammation. After all, measuring the vascular can help speed up healing for those who need it most.

“If we combine the volume of the choroid and the volume of the hippocampus at the screening stage, it can help us better distinguish more vulnerable patients from less vulnerable ones,” Dr. Moon said.

The researchers plan to continue working with Fr. longitudinal study. They will study the changes in vascular plexus volume over time as the disease progresses.

Depression and anxiety in patients with IBD may be related to the vascular barrier in vascular plexus closure

Additional information:
Jong Duck Choi et al., Volume and permeability of the choroid during MRI of the brain in the clinical spectrum of Alzheimer’s disease, Radiology (2022). DOI: 10.1148 / radiol.212400

Citation: Alzheimer’s Disease Volume (May 22, 2022), obtained May 17, 2022 from .html

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